The Attitudes of Nurses and Social Workers Working with Alcoholism This 20 page paper provides a review of the current literature regarding the issue of alcoholism and the attitudes of nurses and social workers who are employed in positions working with alcoholic clients and their families.
History of banking Among many other things, the Code of Hammurabi from BC recorded interest-bearing loans. Banking began with the first prototype banks of merchants of the ancient world, which made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities and this system is known as a barter system.
This began around BC in Assyria and Babylonia.
Later, in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empirelenders based in temples made loans and added two important innovations: Archaeology from this period in ancient China and India also shows evidence of money lending activity.
The origins of modern banking can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italyto the rich cities in the centre and north like FlorenceLuccaSienaVenice and Genoa.
The Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th-century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. Georgewas founded in at GenoaItaly. Merchants started to store their gold with the Litreature review on banking of Londonwho possessed private vaults, and charged a fee for that service.
In exchange for each deposit of precious metal, the goldsmiths issued receipts certifying the quantity and purity of the metal they held as a bailee ; these receipts could not be assigned, only the original depositor could collect the stored goods.
Gradually the goldsmiths began to lend the money out on behalf of the depositorwhich led to the development of modern banking practices; promissory notes which evolved into banknotes were issued for money deposited as a loan to the goldsmith.
Since the promissory notes were payable on demand, and the advances loans to the goldsmith's customers were repayable over a longer time period, this was an early form of fractional reserve banking.
The promissory notes developed into an assignable instrument which could circulate as a safe and convenient form of money backed by the goldsmith's promise to pay,  allowing goldsmiths to advance loans with little risk of default.
The Bank of England was the first to begin the permanent issue of banknotesin The Rothschilds pioneered international finance on a large scale, financing the purchase of the Suez canal for the British government.
A BC one-third stater electrum coin from Lydiawhere gold and silver coins were used for the first time Etymology[ edit ] The word bank was borrowed in Middle English from Middle French banque, from Old Italian banco, meaning "table", from Old High German banc, bank "bench, counter".
Benches were used as makeshift desks or exchange counters during the Renaissance by Jewish  Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions atop desks covered by green tablecloths. See the relevant country pages under for more information.
In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instrumentsincluding chequesand this Act contains a statutory definition of the term banker: Although this definition seems circular, it is actually functional, because it ensures that the legal basis for bank transactions such as cheques does not depend on how the bank is structured or regulated.
The business of banking is in many English common law countries not defined by statute but by common law, the definition above. In other English common law jurisdictions there are statutory definitions of the business of banking or banking business.
When looking at these definitions it is important to keep in mind that they are defining the business of banking for the purposes of the legislation, and not necessarily in general.
In particular, most of the definitions are from legislation that has the purpose of regulating and supervising banks rather than regulating the actual business of banking.Literature Review This paper examines these divergent characteristics through the lens of the existing literature regarding legal origins, financial development, and Islamic banking.
Keywords: mobile banking in india, mobile banking literature Mobile banking is defined as a provision and availment of mobile and bank services by using telecommunication device, the services may include keep in contact with bank to administer account and access customized information (Tiwari and Bus, ).
The aim of the Journal of Banking and Finance is to provide an outlet for the increasing flow of scholarly research concerning financial institutions and the .
The literature review prepared for this study on service quality and satisfaction of customers in all banks (both public and private) situated in India reflects the findings of various professionals based on .
LITERATURE REVIEW ON INTERNET BANKING Page 62 Meaning of Literature Review • Provides an overview and a critical evaluation of a body of literature relating to a. literature review on retail banking in india,Ask Latest information,Abstract,Report,Presentation (pdf,doc,ppt),literature review on retail banking in india technology discussion,literature review on retail banking in india paper presentation details. Islamic Banking-Literature Review The proposed study will investigate the performance of Islamic banks in the Arab Gulf countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) and the Middle East.
IMPS i.e. Immediate Payment Service from ICICI Bank assists in sending and receiving money transfer instantly. IMPS Mobile banking features insta mobile payment service from mobile phones.
A Review of Financial Accounting Fraud Detection based on Data Mining Techniques Anuj Sharma techniques to financial accounting fraud detection. The which is shown in Fig. 1, is based on a literature review of existing knowledge on the nature of data mining research [19,20], fraud detection research [1,3,16,17,18].