Penalties common to the three preceding classes: Fine, and Bond to keep the peace. Accessory Penalties Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification, Perpetual or temporary special disqualification, Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the profession or calling. Civil interdiction, Forfeiture or confiscation of instruments and proceeds of the offense, Payment of costs.
The act built upon the Radio Act ofwhich was a temporary measure when it was passed, intended to stabilize the burgeoning but chaotic radio industry of the mids. The act added communications via common carrier and television. Radio Act of By the early s radio was popular worldwide.
Public demand for receivers was high, with technology available to nearly everyone to build their own homemade receivers. New radio stations were being created at a rapid rate.
The Radio Act of had declared the secretary of commerce to be the regulatory authority over radio, but the secretary was compelled by law to issue licenses to all who applied for one. In there were five radio stations on the air, and in there were To avoid interference with other stations, broadcasters changed frequencies, raised operating power, or moved their facilities.
The rapid growth was not sustainable. Attempts at self-regulation failed in a series of radio conferences convened at the behest of Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.
The Radio Act of was intended to address the crisis. The legislation conceptualized radio broadcasting as an industry in its own right, not as a means of point-to-point communication or as a means of ensuring public safety as did the Wireless Ship Act of and the Radio Act of The act created a five-member Federal Radio Commission FRC with discretionary authority, which the secretary of commerce had lacked under the act.
Commissioners were nominated by the president of the United States and were confirmed by Congress ; they served overlapping terms to maintain operational continuity. No more than three commissioners were permitted to represent any single political party. The FRC was to share regulatory authority with the secretary of commerce although authority was never vested in the secretary of commerceand after one year the FRC was to sunset, leaving the secretary of commerce as the sole regulatory authority.
Sorting out the details was a daunting task, and Congress extended the sunset deadline twice. Congressional attempts to make the FRC a permanent body failed. Congress did not define the PICN standard in specific terms, leaving it to be defined by case law.
The legislation declared the airwaves were a utility owned by the public and charged the FRC to regulate broadcasters so as to guard the interests of airwave owners by issuing licenses to operators who wished to use that utility.
Further authority was given to the commission to renew the licenses of broadcasters who served the public interest, to revoke the licenses and impose fines or prison sentences to broadcasters who did not serve the public interest, to classify stations, to prescribe the nature of service to be provided, to assign frequencies, to determine transmitter power, to create regulations to prevent interference, and to set up zones of coverage areas.
Transition to the Communications Act The transition from the Radio Act of to the Communications Act of was relatively uneventful compared with the transition from the Radio Act of to the Radio Act of There was already order on the airwaves, and an apparatus by which to administer law already existed.
The Communications Act of did, however, bring change. Roosevelt and incorporated virtually all of the Radio Act ofincluding the cornerstone principles of public ownership of the airwaves and the PICN standard.
The FCC was vested with broader regulatory authority that included all radiotelephone activity, including the newly developing broadcast media FM radio and television, and added interstate telegraph and telephone communication which had previously been under the control of the Interstate Commerce Commission and wire and wireless common carrier industries which had been under the control of the Department of Commerce.
The act was organized in a series of six titles. Title I outlined general provisions, including the responsibilities and organization of the FCC.
Title II dealt with telephone and telegraph common carriers. Title IV described procedural and administrative provisions. Title V dealt with the range of forfeitures the FCC could assess.
Title VI dealt with miscellaneous provisions, including the repeal of the Radio Act of The Cable Communications Policy Act was enacted in It detailed regulations for the cable television industry, including video delivery by telephone companies.Ho Chi Minh, the enemy of the United States in the Vietnam War, was initially a friend.
He worked with U.S. special forces in rescuing downed American airmen and providing intelligence on Japanese movements during the last year of World War II. Ho Chi Minh, the enemy of the United States in the Vietnam War, was initially a friend.
He worked with U.S. special forces in rescuing downed American airmen and providing intelligence on Japanese movements during the last year of World War II.
Authors: Shane Simpson and Richard Potter . A. Introduction. The law restricts the freedom of expression in different ways. The most obvious, are the laws against obscenity, defamation and more recently, discrimination.
an act revising the penal code and other penal laws. preliminary article - this law shall be known as "the revised penal code." book one general provisions regarding the date of enforcement and application of the provisions of this code, and regarding the offenses, the persons liable and the penalties.
Telecommunications Act of ; Other short titles: Communications Decency Act of Long title: An Act to promote competition and reduce regulation in order to secure lower prices and higher quality services for telecommunications consumers and encourage the rapid deployment of new telecommunications technologies.
Slavery Abolition Act, (), in British history, act of Parliament that abolished slavery in most British colonies, freeing more than , enslaved Africans in the Caribbean and South Africa as well as a small number in benjaminpohle.com received Royal Assent on August 28, , and took effect on August 1, Background.
Several factors led to the Act’s passage.